Wednesday, 9 January 2013

TRADER'S DICTIONARY - A

Account History
Listing of all transactions (trading and non-trading) completed for a given account.
Accounting Currency
Currency in which account deposit/withdrawal operations are denominated. Not to be confused with the currencies ultimately bought or sold with account funds.
Accrual Swap
An interest rate swap under which a counterparty pays a vanilla floating reference rate, usually three or six month LIBOR, and receives LIBOR plus a significant spread. Interest payments to this counterparty will only accrue on days when rates stay within a certain range dictated by preset upper and lower boundaries.
Aggregate Demand
Used loosely to describe all private and public sector demand for goods and services produced by a given country. In practice, it is interchangeable with Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Academic notions of aggregate demand make a distinction between short-term and long-term, and are modeled as a function of price levels.
Aggregate Risk
Can very depending on context, but generally defined as the amount of exposure a customer has to the (potential) movement of spot and forward rates.
Aggregate Supply
Measures the total volume of goods and services produced by a given economy. Generally speaking, an increase in demand should lead to an expansion of aggregate supply in the economy. In the event of a mismatch between aggregate supply and aggregate demand, prices would change (i.e. inflation/deflation) in order to return the economy to equilibrium.
Aggressor
A trader that has committed to the existing price in the market.
Agio
An archaic term used to describe the difference/premium between the official rate and the market rate.
American Depositary Receipt (ADR)
A vehicle which effectivelycenables American investors to own shares in foreign corporations. ADRS trade on exchanges like conventional securities. The sponsoring bank collects dividends, pays local taxes and converts them to dollars for distribution to American shareholders. It should be noted that ADRs are affected both by company performance and by changes in exchange rates.
American Option
An (currency) option which may be exercised at any time prior to expiration.
Appreciation
Common term used to describe a currency increasing in value, as a result of market forces as opposed to official adjustment.
Arbitrage
The simultaneous purchase and sale of an equivalent security in different markets, with the goal of profiting from pricing inconsistencies. In the context of currency trading, arbitrage applies to a mismatch in paired exchange rates between three currencies (triangular arbitrage) or an inefficiency between identical securities listed in different markets that arises from exchange rate fluctuation.
Around
Dealer jargon used to quote the forward premium/discount. For example, "two-two around" would translate into 2 points on either side of the present spot value.
Asset Allocation
Investment practice that divides funds among different types of securities/vehicles/markets in order to achieve a return that is calibrated to an investor’s risk profile.
Ask (Offer) Price
The price at which specific currency or contract can be purchased. In practice, this can be understood as the number on the right side of the quote, which is usually the higher price. For example, in the quote EUR/USD 1.4122/26, the ask price is 1.4126; meaning you can buy one Euro for 1.4126 US dollars. Opposite to bid price.
Association Cambiste International
The worldwide affiliation of foreign exchange dealers that together make most of the market for forex trading.
At Best
An type of order to buy or sell at the best rate that is currently available in the market.
At or Better
A type of order to deal at or above (whichever is available) a given price.
At Par Forward Spread
Describes a scenario in which the forward price (for a given time period) is equivalent to the spot price.
At the Price Stop-Loss Order
A type of stop-loss order that must be executed at the requested price regardless of "market conditions."
At-the-Money
Describes an option whose strike/exercise price is equal to (or close to) the current market price of the underlying security.
Auction
Sale of securities to the highest bidder(s). In finance, it is mainly used by governments for the allocation of foreign exchange and government paper, such as US Treasury Bills. Sometimes, auctions are conducted in terms of yield, rather than price.
Autocorrelation
The correlation between changes in a single variable over different time periods. If a price is negatively autocorrelated, a move down in one period would suggest a move up in the next, and vice versa. If it were positively autocorrelated, a move down would suggest a move down in the following period as well, and vice versa.
Average Rate Option
A hedging tool where a series of spot rate fixings during the life of an option are used to calculate an average rate. If the average rate is below the strike price, then the bank must settle the difference with the customer. Otherwise, the the option expires worthless with no payment made. Average rate options are generally suited for those who need protection against adverse currency moves that still wish to retain full upside potential. Also known as an Asian Option.
Aussie
Slang term for the Australian dollar.



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